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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable multinomial logistic regression analysis of the association between intra-vaginal douching and vaginal microbiota, referenced to Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated microbiota, of 25 study participants enrolled at the Public Health Service clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, from September 2015 to January 2017

From: Effects of an over-the-counter lactic-acid containing intra-vaginal douching product on the vaginal microbiota

  Univariable modelMultivariable model
No. of samplesN = 1061Lactobacillus iners-dominated microbiotaUnivariable ORa (95% CI)Diverse Lactobacilli Univariable ORa (95% CI)Diverse anaerobesUnivariable ORa (95% CI)P-valueLactobacillus iners-dominated microbiotaMultivariable ORa (95% CI)Diverse Lactobacilli Multivariable ORa (95% CI)Diverse anaerobesMultivariable ORa (95% CI)P-value
Study Cycle    0.321   0.376
 First cycle (no douche)207RefRefRef RefRefRef 
 Second cycle (douching)6501.0 (0.7–1.5)0.8 (0.5–1.3)1.4 (0.9–2.1) 1.0 (0.7–1.5)0.8 (0.5–1.4)1.4 (0.9–2.1) 
 Third cycle (wash-out)2041.0 (0.6–1.7)0.6 (0.2–1.7)1.5 (0.8–2.8) 1.0 (0.6–1.8)0.6 (0.2–1.8)1.7 (0.9–3.1) 
Vaginal intercourse on day of sampling1551.1 (0.6–2.0)0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.0 (0.4–2.4)0.814    
Menses on day of sampling2081.8 (1.1–3.2)2.2 (1.1–4.4)1.7 (1.0–2.8)0.0251.9 (1.1–3.2)2.2 (1.0–4.5)1.7 (1.0–2.9)0.025
Combined oral contraceptive use6000.9 (0.2–5.2)0.9 (0.2–3.2)0.9 (0.1–5.5)0.997    
Interaction menses and douching    0.099    
 No menses601RefRefRef     
 Menses, no douching3762.0 (1.2–3.2)2.0 (0.9–4.2)1.5 (0.9–2.4)     
 Menses and douching842.1 (1.0–4.5)3.0 (1.0–9.4)2.6 (1.0–6.5)     
  1. aAdjusted for multiple (within subject) measurements using generalized estimating equations and referenced to Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated VM
  2. Bold values denote statistical significance at the p < 0.05 level