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Table 1 Antibiotic resistance patterns and molecular determination of resistance genes in studied isolates

From: Clonal diversity, virulence genes content and subclone status of Escherichia coli sequence type 131: comparative analysis of E. coli ST131 and non-ST131 isolates from Iran

ST131 (n = 69) Non-ST131 (n = 84)
antibiotics O25b-ST131 n = 63 O16-ST131 n = 6 Total ST131 Human (n = 56) broiler (n = 28) P value
ST131 vs. non-ST131 ST131 vs broilers
Antibiotic resistance rates, n(%)
 Imipenem 1 (1.6) 1 (16.7) 2 (2.9) 0 0   
 Meropenem 1 (1.6) 0 1 (1.4) 1 (1.8) 0   
 Ertapenem 8 (12.7) 1 (16.7) 9 (13) 12 (21.4) 0   0.05
 Ceftazidime 49 (77.8) 5 (83.3) 54 (78.3) 48 (85.7) 1 (3.6)   0.001
 Cefepime 37 (58.7) 4 (66.7) 41 (59.4) 37 (66.1) 1 (3.6)   0.001
 Cefotaxime 61 (96.8) 5 (83.3) 66 (95,7) 56 (100) 1 (3.6)   0.001
 Ciprofloxacin/levofloxacin 63 (100) 0 63 (91.3) 56 (100) 18 (64.3) 0.03 0.002
 Piperacillin/tazobactam 10 (15.9) 2 (33.3) 12 (17.4) 24 (42.8) 1 (3.6) 0.003  
 Ampicillin/sulbactam 27 (43.5) 5 (83.3) 32 (46.4) 39 (69.6) 0 0.01 0.001
 Amoxicillin/clavulanate 36 (57.1) 5 (83.3) 41 (59.4) 44 (78.6) 4 (14.3) 0.03 0.001
 Aztreonam 59 (93.7) 5 (83.3) 64 (92.8) 52 (93) 1 (3.6)   0.001
 Trimethoprim/sulfameth 44 (69.8) 5 (83.3) 49 (71) 48 (85.7) 20 (71.4) 0.05  
 Tobramycin 32 (50.8) 1 (16.7) 33 (47.8) 38 (67.8) 3 (10.7) 0.03 0.001
 Amikacin 7 (11.1) 0 7 (10.1) 8 (14.3) 0   
 Gentamicin 29 (46) 2 (33.3) 31 (44.9) 33 (59) 1 (3.6)   0.001
 Resistance score (median) 8 8 8 9 2 0.01 0.001
 ESBL phenotype 61 (96.8) 5 (83.3) 66 (95.6) 56 (100) 1 (3.6)   0.001
 MDR 60 (95.2) 5 (83.3) 65 (94.2) 56 (100) 7 (25)   0.001
Resistance genes, n(%)
blaOXA-48 22 (34.9) 4 (66.7) 26 (37.7) 4 (7.1) 0 0.001 0.001
blaNDM 3 0 3 0 0   
blaTEM 41 (65) 4 (66.7) 45 (65.2) 45 (80.4) 18 (66.7)   
blaSHV 29 (46) 2 (33.3) 31 (44.9) 24 (42.1) 5 (18.5)   0.01
blaCTX-M-15 51 (81) 6 (100) 57 (82.6) 38 (67.9) 20 (71.4)   
 CTX-M-G-1 55 (87.3) 6 (100) 61 (88.4) 47 (83.9) 26 (92.9)   
 CTX-M-G-2 0 0 0 2 (3.6) 2 (7.1)   
 CTX-M-G-8 0 3 (50) 3 (4.3) 0 0   
 CTX-M-G-9 20 (31.7) 0 20 (29) 7 (12.5) 13 (46.4) 0.03  
 CTX-M-G-25 18 (28.6) 3 (50) 21 (30.4) 5 (8.9) 2 (7.1) 0.004 0.01
aac6-Ib-cr 43 (68.3) 2 (33.3) 45 (65.2) 39 (69.6) 7 (25)   0.001
qnrB 9 (14.2) 0 9 (13) 8 (14.5) 3 (10.7)   
qnrS 6 (9.5) 0 6 (8.7) 11 (19.6) 5 (17.9)   
ArmA 4 (6.3) 0 4 (5.8) 6 (10.7) 0   
aac6-Ib 42 (66.7) 2 (33.3) 44 (63.8) 36 (64.3) 6 (21.4)   0.001
aac3-IIa 40 (63.5) 3 (50) 43 (62.3) 42 (75.1) 9 (32.1)   0.01