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Table 1 Clinical and epidemiological details of all 148 participants, also categorised by presence/absence of gastrointestinal colonisation with ESC-resistant E. coli and/or K. pneumoniae, and multivariable logistic regression outcomes

From: Epidemiology of paediatric gastrointestinal colonisation by extended spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in north-west Cambodia

  Overall (n = 148) ESC-R E. coli/K. pneumoniae colonised (n = 82; 55%) ESC-R E. coli/K. pneumoniae non-colonised (n = 66; 45%) Univariable logistic regression for ESC-R carriage Multivariable logistic regression for ESC-R carriaged
Number (%) unless otherwise specified n (%) n (%) OR [95% CI] p OR [95% CI] p
Median age [IQR], years 4.24 [1.10–8.82] 3.07 [0.97–7.21] 6.23 [1.32–9.23] 1.00 [1.00–1.00] 0.712   
Male 70 (47) 35 (43) 35 (53) 0.66 [0.34–1.27] 0.211 0.39 [0.18–0.84] 0.015
Inpatienta 70 (48) 49 (60) 20 (32) 3.28 [1.66–6.50] 0.001 3.64 [1.71–7.74] 0.001
Province
 Siem Reap 99 (67) 51 (62) 48 (72) 1    
 Other (versus Siem Reap)e 49 (33) 31 (38) 18 (28) 1.06 [0.72–1.58] 0.716   
Malnutrition 16 (11) 12 (15) 4 (6) 2.66 [0.81–8.67] 0.105   
Co-morbiditiesf 25 (17) 19 (23) 6 (9) 3.01 [1.13–8.06] 0.028   
Diarrhoea presentb 70 (48) 44 (54) 26 (40) 1.78 [0.92–3.46] 0.086   
Water sources
 Well 123 (83) 64 (78) 59 (89) 0.42 [0.16–1.08] 0.073   
 Bottled 17 (11) 13 (16) 4 (6) 2.92 [0.90–9.43] 0.073   
 River 5 (3) 3 (4) 2 (3) 1.22 [0.20–7.49] 0.834   
 Rain 8 (5) 5 (6) 3 (5) 1.36 [0.31–5.93] 0.680   
School attendance 71 (48) 32 (39) 39 (59) 0.44 [0.23–0.86] 0.016 0.39 [0.18–0.83] 0.015
All animals 119 (80) 65 (79) 54 (82)     
 Domestic animals 113 (76) 61 (74) 50 (79) 0.78 [0.36–1.69] 0.532   
  Cat 51 (34) 32 (39) 19 (29) 1.58 [0.79–3.17] 0.194   
  Dog 100 (68) 57 (70) 43 (65) 1.22 [0.61–2.43] 0.573   
  Birds 24 (16) 12 (15) 12 (18) 0.77 [0.32–1.85] 0.561   
 Livestock/food animals 89 (60) 54 (66) 35 (53) 1.71 [0.88–3.32 0.114   
  Water buffalo 4 (3) 3 (4) 1 (1) 2.47 [0.25–24.3] 0.439   
  Chickens 80 (54) 49 (60) 31 (47) 1.67 [0.87–3.23] 0.122   
  Pigs 23 (16) 14 (17) 9 (14) 1.30 [0.53–3.23] 0.567   
  Ducks 2 (1) 2 (2) 0 1 (omitted)    
  Cattle 24 (16) 15 (18) 9 (14) 1.42 [0.58–3.48] 0.446   
Use of toilet for defecation 88 (59) 45 (54) 42 (65) 0.65 [0.33–1.27] 0.207   
Use of soapc
 Never 34 (23) 18 (23) 16 (25) 1    
 Some use (versus Never) 111 (77) 62 (76) 49 (75) 1.12 [0.52–2.43] 0.765   
Presence of intestinal parasites 36 (24) 25 (30.49) 11 (17.19) 2.19 [0.99–4.88] 0.054 3.96 [1.55–10.12] 0.004
  1. amissing one datapoint (n = 147)
  2. bmissing two datapoints (n = 146)
  3. cmissing three datapoints (n = 145)
  4. dBackwards elimination performed using 144 cases for which complete information available, on all predictors, using exit p ≤ 0.1. Final model then incorporated 147 cases for which complete information available on included predictors (gender, inpatient status, presence of intestinal parasites and school attendance)
  5. e“Other province” category includes: Banteay Meanchey (n = 21), Oddar Meanchey (8), Kampong Thom (6), Battambang (5), Preah Vihear (3), Kampong Cham (2), Kampong Chhang (1), Pursat (1), Other (2)
  6. fIncludes: HIV (n = 5), blood dyscrasia (3), Down’s syndrome (2), congenital heart disease (6), tuberculosis (4), asthma (2), other (8); five individuals had multiple co-morbidities
  7. p-values < 0.05 in bold