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Table 2 Details of sampling for bacteriology from mass mortality events in saiga 2010–2015

From: Biological characterization of Pasteurella multocida present in the Saiga population

Location Date Population/Mortality (% of those who died by sex and age) Clinical signs Pathology Number of animals/samples
Borsy, West Kazakhstan 19–29 < May, 2010 25,000 / ~ 12,000 (Female - 64,0%, male – 0,4%, calves – 35,6%) According to witnesses and video material: Depression, respiratory distress, bloody froth from nose, saliva discharge mouth, occasional bloat and diarrhoea, rapid death. Carcasses were 1–2 days old. Pathology incomplete – probe samples. 3/blood, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs
Borsy, West Kazakhstan 20–29 < May, 2011 10,000 / ~ 500 (Female - 98,6%, male – 1,4%) According to witnesses and video material: similar to above Carcases were 1–2 days old. Pathology incomplete – probe samples. 2/blood, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs
Zhangeldinsky region, Kostanay 17–30 < May, 2012 40,000 / ~ 1000 (Female - 93,3%, male – 6,7%) Depression, discharge from the nose and mouth, diarrhoea haemorrhages subcutaneous tissue, lungs, endocardium but pathology incomplete –probe samples from fresh carcases. 14/blood, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs, liver, kidneys
Zholoba, Kostanay < 11–19 May, 2015 70,000 / ~ 70,000 (Female - 98,2%, male - 1,8%, calves all died) Depression, weakness, ataxia, frothy nasal fluid and/or saliva from the mouth, terminal diarrhoea, rapid death. haemorrhages sub-cutaneous - serosal surfaces, epi- and endocardium, lung congestion and oedema, enteric congestion and catarrh, liver and kidney congestion, enlarged gall bladder 26/blood, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs
Ortakara, Kostanay, < 20–26 May, 2015 8000 / ~ 8000 (Female - 90,2%, male −9,8%, calves all died) Depression, weakness, ataxia, occasional nasal/salivary fluid, terminal bloody diarrhoea, rapid death. haemorrhages sub-cutaneous- serosal surfaces, epi-and endocardium, lung congestion and occasional oedema, haemorrhagic lymph nodes, enteritic congestion and catarrh, liver and kidney congestion, enlarged gall bladder 6/blood, spleen, lymph nodes, lungs