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Table 1 Isolates and epidemiology

From: NGS-based phylogeny of diphtheria-related pathogenicity factors in different Corynebacterium spp. implies species-specific virulence transmission

Sample name Species Year Host Host Disease Risk factor Toxin-PCR Elek Outbreak ref
08–1143-CB1 C. ulcerans 2007 Pig Asymptomatic colonisation NA Positive Positive [7]
KL0126-cb2 C. ulcerans 2007 Human Diphtheria-like Animal contact (pig) Positive Positive [7]
KL0160 C. pseudotuberculosis 2009 Goat NA NA Negative N.a.
KL0182 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2010 Boar Lymphadenitis NA Positive Negative
KL0183 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2010 Boar Lymphadenitis NA Positive Negative
KL0194 C. ulcerans 2010 Human NA NA Positive Positive
KL0195 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2010 Human NA NA Positive Negative
KL0199 C. ulcerans 2010 Human NA NA Negative N.a.
KL0246-cb3 C. ulcerans 2010 Human NA Animal contact (cat) Positive Positive [7]
KL0251-cb4 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2010 Cat Asymptomatic colonisation NA Positive Negative [7]
KL0252-cb5 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2010 Cat Asymptomatic colonisation NA Positive Negative [7]
KL0259 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2011 Boar Lung abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0260 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2011 Boar Multiple abscesses NA Positive Negative
KL0262 C. pseudotuberculosis (NTTB) 2011 Buffalo NA NA Positive Negative
KL0263 C. pseudotuberculosis (NTTB) 2011 Buffalo NA NA Positive Negative
KL0264 C. pseudotuberculosis 2011 Human NA NA Negative Negative
KL0265 C. pseudotuberculosis 2011 Human NA NA Negative Negative
KL0266 C. pseudotuberculosis 2011 Human NA NA Negative Negative
KL0269 C. pseudotuberculosis 2011 Goat Abscess NA Negative N.a.
KL0276 C. diphtheriae 2011 Human NA NA Positive Positive
KL0315-cb6 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Human Ulcer Animal contact (dog) Positive Negative [7]
KL0318-cb7 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Dog Asymptomatic colonisation NA Positive Negative [7]
KL0330 C. diphtheriae 2012 Human Wound infection Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0345 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Cat Rhinitis NA Positive Negative
KL0349 C. ulcerans 2012 Human NA NA Negative Negative
KL0350 C. ulcerans 2012 Human NA NA Positive Positive
KL0355 C. diphtheriae 2012 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0360 C. diphtheriae 2012 Human Wound infection Travel (Africa) Negative N.a. [17]
KL0371 C. diphtheriae 2012 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0372 C. diphtheriae 2012 Human Wound infection Mixed infection (S. aureus, Enterobacter spp., Pantoea spp.) Negative N.a. [17]
KL0374 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0377 C. diphtheriae 2012 Human Wound infection Mixed infection (hemolysing Streptococcus spp., group A) Negative N.a. [17]
KL0382 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0386 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0387-cb8 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Human Wound infection Animal contact (cat) Positive Negative [7]
KL0392-cb9 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2012 Cat Asymptomatic colonisation NA Positive Negative [7]
KL0394 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0395 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0396 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0400 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0401 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0433 C. ulcerans 2013 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0434 C. diphtheriae 2013 Human Wound infection (insect bite) Travel (destination not reported) Negative N.a. [17]
KL0438 C. diphtheriae 2013 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0442 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Human Ulcer NA Positive Negative
KL0451 C. ulcerans 2013 Human Sepsis, infected dialysis shunt NA Negative N.a.
KL0459 C. ulcerans 2013 Human Diphtheria-like Animal contact (dog) Positive Positive
KL0461 C. diphtheriae 2013 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0468 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Human NA NA Positive Negative
KL0472 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2013 Human NA NA Positive Negative
KL0475 C. ulcerans 2013 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0476 C. diphtheriae 2013 Human Wound infection Travel (destination not reported) Negative N.a. [17]
KL0479 C. diphtheriae 2013 Human Wound infection Hepatitis C Negative N.a. [17]
KL0483 C. ulcerans 2014 Human Wound infection Animal contact (dog) Positive Positive
KL0497 C. ulcerans 2014 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0501 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2014 Human Pus NA Positive Negative
KL0507 C. diphtheriae 2014 Human Sepsis NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0515 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2014 Human Wound infection NA Positive Negative
KL0522 C. diphtheriae 2014 Human Wound infection Mixed infection (S. pyogenes), drug abuse Negative N.a. [17]
KL0540 C. ulcerans 2014 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0541 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2014 Human Diphtheria-like NA Positive Negative
KL0547 C. ulcerans 2014 Human Wound infection Chronic wound with C. ulcerans, Streptococcus spp. (C), S. aureus Positive Positive
KL0556 C. ulcerans 2014 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0557 C. diphtheriae 2014 Human Wound infection Travel (Sri Lanka)Mixed infection (S. pyogenes) Negative N.a. [17]
KL0565 C. diphtheriae 2014 Human Phlegmon NA Positive Positive
KL0581 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2014 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0585 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection, deep wound NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0598 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2015 Boar Lymph node abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0599 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection, abscess Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0603 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Abscess Travel (Sri Lanka) Positive Positive [5]
KL0613 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Ulcer NA Positive Positive [5]
KL0615 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2015 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0623 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection Travel (asylum seeker Eritrea) Positive Positive [5]
KL0625 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Ulcer Travel (asylum seeker Ethiopia), pulmonary tuberculosis Positive Positive [5]
KL0631 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Abscess Travel (asylum seeker) Positive Positive [5]
KL0633 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection Travel (asylum seeker Somalia) Positive Positive [5]
KL0638 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Tonsilitis, pharyngitis, diptheria-like Travel (Thailand)animal contact (cat, rabbit) Positive Positive [5]
KL0652 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Abscess Travel (asylum seeker) Positive Positive [5]
KL0654 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human NA Travel (asylum seeker Eritrea) Positive Positive [5]
KL0655 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human NA Travel (asylum seeker) Positive Positive [5]
KL0663 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection Travel (asylum seeker Eritrea) Positive Positive [5]
KL0670 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human NA Travel (asylum seeker) Positive Positive [5]
KL0675 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection, phlegmon, sepsis Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0676 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0678 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection Homeless, alcohol abuse Negative N.a. [17]
KL0691 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0693 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Sepsis, pneumonia Origin: Poland Negative N.a. [17]
KL0698 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0707 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2015 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0709 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2015 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0713 C. diphtheriae 2015 Human Wound infection, deep wound NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0747 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Wound infection Homeless, drug abuse Negative N.a. [17]
KL0759 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Olecranon bursitis Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0762 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Pharyngitis, tonsillitis NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0768 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Sepsis, endocarditis Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0770 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Wound infection, ulcer NA Negative N.a. [17]
KL0773 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2016 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0774 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2016 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0785 C. ulcerans 2016 Human Wound infection, diabetic foot Animal contact (dog), Positive Positive
KL0788 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human phlegmon (post human bite) Origin: Poland, homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0796 C. ulcerans 2016 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0798 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Wound infection, burn Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0811 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Wound infection Origin: Poland, homeless, alcohol abuse Negative N.a. [17]
KL0812 C. diphtheriae 2016 Human Wound infection, abscess Homeless Negative N.a. [17]
KL0818 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2016 Human ulcer Diabetic foot Positive Negative
KL0825 C. ulcerans 2016 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0832 C. ulcerans 2016 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0840 C. ulcerans 2016 Human Eczema, Erysipelas Animal contact (cat) Positive Positive
KL0846 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2016 Human Ulcer Diabetic foot Positive Negative
KL0853 C. ulcerans 2016 Human Wound infection (post dog bite) Animal contact (dog) Negative N.a.
KL0867 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2016 Human Wound infection NA Positive Negative
KL0870 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2016 Human Eczema NA Positive Negative
KL0876 C. ulcerans 2017 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a.
KL0880 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Human Ulcer NA Positive Negative
KL0882 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0883 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0884 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0886 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar NA NA Positive Negative
KL0887 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0927 C. diphtheriae 2017 Human Wound infection Homeless Negative N.a.
KL0938 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0941 C. ulcerans 2017 Human Wound infection NA Negative N.a.
KL0950 C. diphtheriae 2017 Human Wound infection Travel (Thailand)Mixed infection (S. pyogenes) Positive Positive
KL0956 C. diphtheriae 2017 Human Wound infection NA Positive Positive
KL0957 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL0968 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL1003 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL1006 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL1007 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL1008 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL1009 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL1010 Atypical C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Boar Abscess NA Positive Negative
KL1015 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Human Carrier status Animal contact (cat, dog) Positive Negative
KL1017 C. ulcerans 2017 Cattle Milk isolate, mastitis NA Negative N.a.
KL1025 C. ulcerans (NTTB) 2017 Cat Carrier status NA Positive Negative
KL1058 C. diphtheriae 2017 Human Wound infection Travel (Angola), war victim Negative N.a.
KL1059 C. diphtheriae 2017 Human Wound infection Travel (Angola), war victim Positive Positive
  1. NA No information available, N.a. Not analysed