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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: Gut microbiome patterns correlate with higher postoperative complication rates after pancreatic surgery

  Non-complicated Medical complication Surgical complication All complications p-value non-comp. vs. med. Comp. p-value non-comp. vs. surg. Comp. p-value non-comp. vs. all comp.
Number 15 51 141 17  
Age [years] 59.0 (50.0–63.5) 75.0 (75.0–75.0) 68.5 (63.3–74.0) 69.0 (62–75) 0.013* 0.009** 0.002**
ASA status 2.0 (2.0–2.0) 2.0 (2.0–3.0) 3.0 (2.0–3.0) 3.0 (2.0–3.0) 0.327 0.014* 0.021*
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Coronary heart disease 2 (13.3%) 1 (20.0%) 1 (7.1%) 1 (5.9%) 0.718 0.584 0.801
 Diabetes 3 (20.0%) 2 (40.0%) 4 (28.6%) 5 (29.4%) 0.371 0.590 0.447
 Arterial hypertension 5 (33.3%) 4 (80.0%) 6 (42.9%) 8 (47.1%) 0.069 0.597 0.260
 Chronic renal failure 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1.000 1.000 1.000
Primary disease
 Malignant 8 (53.3%) 4 (80.0%) 8 (57.1%) 11 (64.7%) 0.292 0.837 0.563
 IPMN 2 (12.5%) 1 (20.0%) 6 (42.9%) 6 (35.3%) 0.718 0.075 0.123
 Chronic pancreatitis 5 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.136 0.018* 0.006**
Operation
 Partial pancreaticoduodenectomy 3 (20.0%) 1 (20.0%) 3 (21.4%) 4 (23.5%) 1.000 0.924 0.940
 Pylorus-preserving pancreas head resection 5 (33.3%) 3 (60.0%) 5 (35.7%) 6 (35.3%) 0.292 0.893 0.601
 Total pancreatectomy 2 (13.3%) 1 (20.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (5.9%) 0.718 0.157 0.410
 Distal pancreatectomy 3 (20.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (21.4%) 3 (17.7%) 0.278 0.924 0.749
 Tumour enucleation 2 (13.3%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (21.4%) 3 (17.7%) 0.389 0.564 0.841
 Surgery [min] 285.0 (187.5–345.0) 240.0 (240.0–330.0) 217.5 (153.8–337.5) 240.0 (165.0–330.0) 0.726 0.444 0.639
 Blood loss2 [mL] 750.0 (500.0–1150.0) 700.0 (600.0–800.0) 600.0 (500.0–700.0) 600.0 (500.0–800.0) 0.965 0.273 0.393
 Infusion2 [mL] 3500.0 (2500.0–4250.0) 3000.0 (3000.0–4500.0) 2750.0 (2000.0–3375.0) 3000.0 (2000.0–3500.0) 0.756 0.186 0.352
 Transfusion2 [mL] 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 0.0 (0.0%) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 CRP3 [mg/L] 56.2 (36.4–114.8) 135.6 (79.9–151.9) 114.0 (76.9–160.7) 103.9 (74.4–153.0) 0.020* 0.004** 0.001**
 Leucocytes3 [1/nL] 9.0 (7.9–10.3) 11.4 (9.0–17.4) 11.7 (76.9–160.9) 11.4 (8.3–14.0) 0.015* 0.025* 0.007**
Hospital stay
 In total [days] 10.0 (9.0–11.5) 21.0 (13.0–45.0) 27.0 (15.0–44.5) 21.0 (13.0–43.0) 0.007** 0.001** < 0.001***
 Intermediate care unit [days] 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 5.0 (0.0–23.0) 0.0 (0.0–4.8) 0.0 (0.0–5.0) 0.041* 0.245 0.095
 Intensive care unit [days] 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 1.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 0.033* 0.059 0.027*
Postoperative complications [Clavien-Dindo classification]
 Grade I 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 4 (28.6%) 4 (23.5%) 1.000 0.026* 0.059
 Grade II 0 (0.0%) 3 (60.0%) 3 (21.4%) 6 (35.3%) 0.001** 0.058 0.016*
 Grade III4 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (42.9%) 6 (35.3%) 1.000 0.004** 0.016*
 Grade IV5 0 (0.0%) 2 (40.0%) 1 (7.1%) 2 (11.8%) 0.010* 0.129 0.059
 Grade V 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1.000 1.000 1.000
  1. Data are presented as the median and interquartile range (Q1–Q3) or as count and percentage. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant and are highlighted in boldface. Concerning symbolism and higher orders of significance: p < 0.05 *, p < 0.01 **, p < 0.001 ***. ASA status, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification system; IPMN, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; CRP, C-reactive protein. 1Two patients suffered from medical and surgical complications, therefore both have been allocated into the medical as well as the surgical complication group; 2total measured intraoperatively; 3postoperative observation period; 4includes grades IIIa and IIIb; 5 includes grades IVa and IVb