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Table 2 Logistic mixed model regression analysis for examining the effect of probiotic supplementation on bacterial genera abundance

From: Gut microbiota of preterm infants supplemented with probiotics: sub-study of the ProPrems trial

  Probiotic
(n = 38 infants, 124 specimens)
Placebo
(n = 28 infants, 91 specimens)
   
Genusa Prevalence
n infants (%)b;
n specimens (%)c
Relative abundance
Mean % (SD)
Prevalence
n infants (%)b;
n specimens (%)c
Relative abundance
Mean % (SD)
AORd (95% CI) P value Adjusted P valuee
Bifidobacterium 38 (100); 111 (90) 36.4 (32.5) 25 (89); 50 (55) 17.5 (27.4) 4.28 (2.02–9.10) < 0.001 0.002
Enterobacter 37 (97); 95 (77) 14.8 (24.6) 28 (100); 77 (85) 18.7 (25.1) 0.75 (0.40–1.41) 0.37 0.45
Escherichia/Shigella 37 (97); 84 (68) 9.1 (19.1) 28 (100); 74 (81) 7.5 (17.2) 0.69 (0.34–1.43) 0.32 0.43
Staphylococcus 36 (95); 65 (52) 8.1 (24.0) 24 (86); 48 (53) 7.5 (20.4) 0.85 (0.47–1.55) 0.60 0.60
Enterococcus 37 (97); 76 (61) 3.7 (11.0) 28 (100); 71 (78) 8.8 (19.3) 0.37 (0.20–0.71) 0.003 0.02
Streptococcus 38 (100); 93 (75) 4.7 (15.0) 25 (89); 48 (53) 2.9 (9.4) 1.57 (0.88–2.80) 0.13 0.31
Veillonella 32 (84); 56 (45) 2.4 (7.2) 25 (89); 46 (51) 3.3 (7.9) 0.74 (0.42–1.33) 0.32 0.43
Clostridium 32 (84); 53 (43) 0.5 (2.4) 27 (96); 45 (49) 3.0 (9.0) 0.68 (0.38–1.21) 0.19 0.31
Lactobacillus 23 (61); 41 (33) 0.9 (3.7) 13 (46); 19 (21) 2 (7.6) 1.85 (0.78–4.41) 0.16 0.31
Citrobacter 20 (53); 27 (22) 0.8 (3.4) 21 (75); 34 (37) 1.7 (10.1) 0.44 (0.19–1.02) 0.06 0.21
Akkermansia 6 (16); 6 (5) 0.1 (0.5) 3 (11); 3 (3) 1.4 (9.2) 1.87 (0.41–8.59) 0.42 0.47
Pantoea 11 (29); 14 (11) 0.1 (0.8) 12 (43); 18 (20) 1.1 (10.1) 0.45 (0.15–1.35) 0.15 0.31
  1. Abbreviations: AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IQR interquartile range; P values <0.05 are bolded to indicate statistically significant associations.
  2. aProportional abundances of each genera were converted to a binary variable (based on the median value). Only genera that had a mean abundance of at least 1% abundant in one (or both) allocation group were included in regression analysis; b Presents the number (and percent) of infants who had at least on specimen over the study period test positive for genus; c Presents the number (and percent) of total specimens test positive for genus d Odds ratio for mixed effects regression model association between allocation group and bacterial abundance adjusted for gestation and age at sampling, clustering by participant number to account for multiple specimens from infants (66 clusters). e P-value false discovery rate adjustment for multiple testing was performed using the Benjamini-Hochberg method