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Table 1 Overview of study participants

From: Gut microbiota of preterm infants supplemented with probiotics: sub-study of the ProPrems trial

  Probiotic, n = 38 Placebo, n = 28 P valuea
Demographics
Male, n (%) 19 (50.0) 14 (50.0) 1.0
Gestational age, wk., mean (SD) 28.6 (1.81) 27.5 (1.72) 0.02
Birth weight, g, mean (SD) 1040 (285) 1000 (253) 0.53
Maternal antibiotics, n (%)b 20 (52.6) 12 (42.9) 0.43
Infant antibiotics:
 Courses of antibiotics, median (IQR)) 1 (0–2) 1 (0–2) 0.48
 Days of antibiotic exposure, d, median (IQR) 2 (0–8) 5 (0–10) 0.38
Infants with at least 1 episode of definite late-onset sepsis with pathogen, n(%)c 3 (7.9) 2 (7.1) 1.0
Infants with at least 1 episode of definite late-onset sepsis with CoNS, n(%)c 2 (5.3) 4 (14.3) 0.39
Caesarean delivery, n (%) 27 (71.1) 19 (60.7) 0.78
Any breast milk feeding, n (%) 37 (97.4) 28 (100.0) 1.0
Age commenced study powder, d, median (IQR) 3.0 (2.0–5.0) 3.5 (2.0–5.5) 0.51
Age finished study powder, d, median (IQR) 67.5 (54.0–85.0) 73.0 (64.0–89.5) 0.14
Length of supplementation, d, median (IQR) 62.5 (48.5–81.8) 69.5 (62.0–83.3) 0.17
Sequencing data
Specimens included, n 124 91  
Specimens collected before supplementation commenced, n 3 8  
DOL, median (range) 3 (3–4) 4 (1–8)  
Specimens collected during supplementation period, n 80 62  
DOL, median (range) 30 (6–72) 31 (4–96)  
Specimens collected post supplementation period, n 41 21  
DOL, median (range) 256 (58–529) 285 (61–613)  
Specimens collected per baby, mean (SD) 3 (0.8) 3 (0.8)  
Number of reads per specimen, median (IQR) 3296 (1729–5136) 3076 (1654–4472) 0.39
  1. Abbreviations: DOL Day of life of specimen collection, IQR interquartile range, CoNS Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, SD standard deviation
  2. aP value is based on Chi-Square test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables. b maternal antibiotics is presented as the number (%) of mothers reporting antibiotic use before or during labor. c late-onset sepsis > 48 h after birth and before discharge home or term postmenstrual age