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Table 4 Major immunity genes in M. domestica and G. pallidipes: The immune genes described for the model insect, Drosophila melanogaster and the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae were obtained from the ImmunoDB [161]. The pathway for the putative immune-related proteins in G. pallidipes and M. domestica were verified by BLASTp searches at the Insect Innate Immunity Database (IIID) (≤10−6; bit score > 75) [164]. The pathways shown in this table have been reviewed by Kingsolver et al. [174]

From: Coevolution of hytrosaviruses and host immune responses

Description of the functions and pathways of immune-related proteins in Drosophila melanogaster Numbers of homologs
Immune function Key pathway Protein name/sub-family D. melanogaster An. gambiae M. domestica G. pallidipes
Pathogen recognition Lectin Calcium-dependent (C-type) lectins (CTLs) 34 25 37 17
Phagocytic Down Syndrome cell adhesion molecule-1 (Dscam1) 1 1 3 1
Pathogen pattern-recognition receptor Eater (Eater) 1 1 1
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) 10 13 22 7
Signaling Toll Spätzle-like proteins (Spätzle) 6 6 4 7
Toll receptors (Tolls) 9 10 7 6
MyD88 1 1 1 1
Tube 1 1 1 1
Pelle 1 1 1 1
TNF-receptor-associated factor-like (TRAF) 1 1 1 2
Cactus 1 1 1 2
Dorsal 2 1 8
Signaling Imd Immune deficiency (Imd) 1 1 1
TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (Tak1) 1 1 1 1
Kenny 1 1 1
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kB kinase β (IKKb/ird5) 1 1 1 1
Fas-associated death domain (FADD) 1 1 1 1
Poor Imd response upon knock-in (PIRK) 1 1
Caspar (Casp) 1 1 1 1
TAK1-associated binding protein 2 (Tab2) 1 1 1 1
Relish (Rel) 1 2 1 2
Signaling JAK/STAT Domeless 1 1 1
Janus kinase (Hopscotch) 1 1 1 1
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat92E) 1 2 1 2
Signaling JNK Jun kinase (JNK)/basket 1 1 1 1
Dual-specificity MAPK hemipterous (hep) 1 1 1 1
Jun-related antigen (Jra/Jun) 1 1 2
Effectors AMP Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) 21 11 21 4
Lysozyme 17 8 29 5
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 1 1 1 1
Modulators Exocytic CLIP-Domain Serine Proteases (CLIPs) 47 55 132 72
Proteolytic Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) 29 21 35 14
Melanization or Encapsulation Humoral Prophenoloxidase (PPO) 3 9 25 8
RNAi response Small RNA Regulatory Pathways (SRRPs) Argonaute (Ago) 3 3 2 3
Armitage (Armi) 1 1 1 1
Aubergine (Aub) 1 1 1 1
Dicer (Dcr) 2 2 2 1
Drosha 1 1 1 1
Loquacious (Loqs) 1 1 2 1
Partner of Drosha (Pasha) 1 1 1
P-element induced wimpy testis (Piwi) 1 1 1 1
R2D2 1 1 1 2
Spindle-E (Spn-E) or Homeless 1 1 2 1
Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN) 1 1 1 1