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Table 1 Cation and metal ion concentrations of the untreated water samples and the corresponding solar pasteurized water samples collected at various temperatures compared to the recommended drinking water guidelines

From: Comparative analysis of solar pasteurization versus solar disinfection for the treatment of harvested rainwater

Metal Before 71 °C After 71 °C Before 86 °C After 86 °C Before 93 °C After 93 °C SANS 241 DWAF AWDG
Al (μg/L) 1.98 99.18 1.36 37.99 1.13 31.70 300 150 200
B (μg/L) < 0.1 37.77 - - - - - - 4000
V (μg/L) 0.07 1.45 0.05 0.62 0.04 0.60 200 1000 -
Mn (μg/L) 4.78 8.60 1.09 9.94 2.16 9.48 100 50 500
Fe (μg/L) 172.92 29.19 78.91 50.07 51.55 26.89 200 100 300
Co (μg/L) 0.05 0.22 0.05 0.24 0.05 0.23 500 - -
Ni (μg/L) 1.60 30.00 5.21 26.46 0.55 25.59 150 - 20
Cu (μg/L) 2.65 525.42 2.96 549.63 3.94 495.44 1000 1000 2000
Zn (μg/L) 26.45 2529.53 17.37 2086.09 6.70 2003.86 5000 3000 3000
As (μg/L) 0.25 5.63 0.37 1.58 0.49 1.48 10 10 10
Mo (μg/L) 0.02 0.26 0.01 0.15 0.02 0.14 - - 50
Cd (μg/L) < 0.05 0.49 0.00 0.77 0.00 0.58 5 5 2
Ba (μg/L) 29.86 86.30 92.97 78.62 88.75 73.53 - - 2000
Pb (μg/L) 0.59 74.12 <0.006 26.30 <0.006 19.67 20 10 10
Ca (mg/L) 3.05 7.37 4.87 5.42 4.74 5.49 150 32 -
K (mg/L) 0.50 1.60 0.47 0.80 0.50 1.04 50 50 -
Mg (mg/L) 0.31 0.83 0.45 0.57 0.44 0.58 70 30 -
Na (mg/L) 1.61 3.67 2.07 2.70 2.09 2.70 200 100 180
P (mg/L) 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.04 - - -
Si (mg/L) 0.31 1.37 0.64 1.77 0.65 1.78 - - -