Skip to main content

Table 5 Correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in water sources-bivariate analysis

From: Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Molyko and Bomaka, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

Predictor N % OR* 95 % CI p-value
Location of water source
 Closed 28 54.9 Ref   
 Open 69 66.3 1.62 0.82–3.21 0.16
Lid on water source
 NA 87 65.1 Ref   
 Yes 15 51.7 0.57 0.25–1.30 0.18
Height above ground level
  ≤ 1 m 6 60.0 Ref   
  > 1 m 88 62.4 1.11 0.30–4.10 0.88
 NA 3 75.0 2.00 0.15–26.72 0.60
Pipes exposed
 Not exposed 56 58.9 Ref   
 Exposed 35 74.5 2.03 0.94–4.39 0.07
 NA 6 46.2 0.60 0.19–1.91 0.40
Distance from toilet
  ≤ 1 m 2 66.7 Ref   
 2–10 m 7 77.8 1.75 0.10–30.82 0.70
  > 10 m 88 61.5 0.80 0.07–9.03 0.86
Distance from septic tank
  > 10 m 77 60.2 Ref   
  ≤ 10 m 20 74.1 1.89 0.75–4.80 0.17
Distance from farm
  ≤ 1 m 11 64.7 Ref   
 2–10 m 14 63.6 0.95 0.25–3.57 0.94
  > 10 m 72 62.1 0.89 0.31–2.58 0.83
Animals around source
  > 10 m 94 61.8 Ref   
  ≤ 10 m 3 100.0 0.00 0.00- > 1.0E12 0.24
Existence of water source
  ≤ 5 years 51 72.9 Ref   
 6–10years 20 54.1 0.44 0.19–1.01 0.05
  > 10 years 26 54.2 0.44 0.20–0.96 0.04
Mud
 Present 42 68.9 Ref   
 Absent 55 58.5 0.64 0.32–1.26 0.19
Covered by cement
 Present 64 58.7 Ref   
 Absent 33 71.7 1.78 0.85–3.77 0.13
Stagnant water
 Present 39 68.4 Ref   
 Absent 58 59.2 0.67 0.33–1.33 0.25
Enter water with feet
 Yes 4 80.0 Ref   
 No/NA 93 62.0 0.41 0.04–3.74 0.38
Cleaning frequency
 Never/rarely 17 89.5 Ref   
 Weekly 46 57.5 0.16 0.03–0.73 0.02
 Monthly 31 60.8 0.18 0.04–0.87 0.03
 Yearly 3 60.0 0.18 0.02–1.78 0.14
pH
 7 72 57.6 Ref   
 6 25 83.3 3.68 1.32–10.24 0.01
Turbidity
 Cloudy/contain particles 11 78.6 Ref   
 Clear 86 61.0 0.43 0.11–1.60 0.19
Odour
 Yes 9 90.0 Ref   
 No 88 60.7 0.17 0.02–1.39 0.06
Sliminess
 Yes 4 40.0 Ref   
 No 93 64.1 2.68 0.72–9.94 0.12
  1. *OR unadjusted odds ratio, OR odds ratio, N frequency of positive sample, % percentage of positive samples, NA not applicable to the factor being studied, Ref reference variable category, CI confidence interval, p-values ≤0.2 suggests a possible association to the presence of enteric pathogenic protozoa