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Table 1 Tools available in pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria for genome modification

From: Bacterial genome engineering and synthetic biology: combating pathogens

Engineering tool Methodology Engineered pathogenic strains
Recombineering Homologous recombination of linear DNA utilizing λ-Red enzymes Gam, Exo and Bet Salmonella enterica [26] a
Escherichia coli [23] a
Pseudomonas aeruginosa [29] a Streptomyces coelicolor [28] b
Shigella dysenteriae [50] a
pORTMAGE Portable Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE)
Utilizing recombineering
Salmonella enterica [35]a
Targetrons Retrohoming of Mobile Group II Introns by reverse splicing and insertion in genome Clostridium perfringens [38] b
Vibrio Cholera [78] a
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis [79] a
Staphylococcus aureus [80]b
Phage Engineering
CRISPR/Cas9
Delivery of CRISPR genes and RNA guides for sequence specific antimicrobials Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli [55] a
Antisense RNA Post-transcriptional gene silencing Staphylococcus aureus [81] b
Streptomyces coelicolor [82] b
  1. aGram-negative pathogens, b Gram-positive bacteria