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Table 7 Regions with reported resistance and potential rescue regimens for H. pylori eradication in Asia [5]

From: Emerging Helicobacter pylori levofloxacin resistance and novel genetic mutation in Nepal

Resistance type Country First- and second-line therapy Rescue therapy
CAM-based triple therapy MNZ-based triple therapy BIS-based quadruple therapy non-BIS quadruple `concomitant` therapy furazolidone-based triple therapy Sequential therapy Hybrid therapy LVX-based triple therapy RIF-based triple therapy
Low resistance to four antibiotics Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia
High CAM resistance (>20 %) Japan  
High MNZ resistance (>40 %) China-Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Bhutan  
High CAM and MNZ resistance Turkey, Bahrain, Vietnam     
High CAM and LVX resistance South Korea   
High CAM, MNZ, and LVX resistance China-Beijing and Southeast China, Bangladesh, Nepal      
High CAM, MNZ, and AMX resistance Indonesia     
High CAM, MNZ, AMX, and LVX (CIP) resistance Iran, India, Pakistan        
  1. Abbreviations: CAM clarithromycin, MNZ metronidazole, LVX levofloxacin, AMX amoxicillin, CIP ciprofloxacin, TCN tetracycline, RIF Rifabutin