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Table 1 H. pylori antibiotics resistance rates in South Asia

From: Emerging Helicobacter pylori levofloxacin resistance and novel genetic mutation in Nepal

Ref Country City Year Patients Methods CAM MNZ LVX TCN AMX Others
[22] India Gujarat 2008–2011 80 DDM 58.8 % 83.8 % 72.5 % 53.8 % 72.5 % Ciprofloxacin (50 %)
[33] India Multicentre 259 E-test 44.7 % 77.9 % 32.8 %
[53] India Kolkata 2000–2001 67 ADM 0.0 % 85.1 % 7.5 % 0.0 % Furazolidone (0.0 %)
[37] India North India 68 ADM 11.8 % 48.5 % 16.2 % 17.6 % Furazolidone (22.1 %)
[34] India Varanasi 2005–2006 63 ADM 4.7 % 100.0   0.0 % 65.1 %
[32] Pakistan Karachi 2005–2008 178 NM 36.0 % 89.0 % 12.0 % 37.0 % Ofloxacin (18.5 %)
[54] Pakistan Karachi 2008–2013 92 E-test 5.4 % 97.8 % 16.2 % 4.3 % 2.2 % Ofloxacin (30.1 %), Furazolidone (15.2 %)
[55] Pakistan Karachi 2007–2009 92 E-test 32.6 % 47.8 % 2.2 %
[56] Pakistan Karachi 2009–2010 162 E-test 37.0 % Fluoroquinolone 62.3 %
[35] Pakistan Rawalpindi 2011–2012 46 E-test 47.8 % 73.9 % 4.4 % 54.3 % Ciprofloxacin (13.0 %)
[57] Bangladesh Dhaka 1999–2001 174 ADM 10.0 % 77.5 % 15.0 % 6.6 %
[23] Bangladesh Dhaka 2014 56 ADM 39.3 % 94.6 % 66.1 % 0.0 % 3.6 %
  1. Abbreviations: ADM Agar Dilution Method, DDM Disk diffusion method, E-test Epsilometer test, CAM clarithromycin, MNZ metronidazole, LVX levofloxacin, AMX amoxicillin, TCN tetracycline