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Fig. 3 | BMC Microbiology

Fig. 3

From: Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of mouthrinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium fluoride

Fig. 3

Confocal microscopy of oral biofilms following exposure to test rinses. Biofilms were cultivated on hydroxyapatite surfaces inoculated with saliva and exposed to mouthrinse formulations (final concentration, 100 %) containing CPC (TR) or CPC and fluoride (TFR). Control rinses without CPC (CR and CFR, respectively) and a treatment-free control (NTC) were also included. Biofilms were then treated with a fluorescent viability stain and visualised by confocal microscopy. Three-dimensional projections show representative images of plaques and two-dimensional plots show representative depth profiles plotted through the deepest section of biofilm. Red, non-viable mass; green, viable mass. Higher proportions of red fluorescence among biofilms treated with test rinses indicate widespread inactivation of bacteria through their depths. Each grid represents a 776.5 μm2 area of biofilm, each large grid square representing 51.77 μm2. Depth profiles measure 97.7, 98.3, 58.0, 156.3 and 81.4 μm for NTC, CR, CFR, TR and TFR, respectively

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