Soluble factors from biofilms reduce viability in hBMSCs. Enumeration of viable bacteria within biofilms (A) and measurement of released protein from biofilms (B) of S. aureus UAMS-1 and P. aeruginosa SAMMC-418 grown for up to 5 days. (C) Cell viability of hBMSCs over a 7 day period following exposure to media containing 25% PBS (vehicle control), lipoteichoic acid (LTA, 10 μg/mL at 25%, Gram-positive cell wall component), S. aureus UAMS-1 planktonic-conditioned media (PCM), and S. aureus UAMS-1 biofilm-conditioned media (BCM). (D) Cell viability of hBMSCs over a 7 day period following exposure to media containing 25% PBS (vehicle control), lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 10 μg/mL at 25%, Gram-negative cell wall component), P. aeruginosa SAMMC-418 PCM, and P. aeruginosa SAMMC-418 BCM. Values are expressed as a ratio of the untreated growth control (untreated hBMSCs exposed to complete growth media, indicated by dashed lines) and represent the average ± SEM. *,#,+ p < 0.05 compared to day 1, 3 and 7 controls, respectively.