vaccine and wild-type parent strains in Ensure and sodium bicarbonate. (A)
S. Typhi strains χ9633 and χ3744; (B)
S. Typhi strains χ9639 and χ3769; (C)
S. Typhi strains χ9640 and χ8438; (D)
S. Typhimurium χ9558 and χ3761. Percent CFU/ml was calculated as follows: (# CFU at tn/# CFU at t0) x 100 for each strain. Wild-type strains that exhibited a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the number of viable cells in Ensure over viable cells in bicarbonate are marked with an asterisk (*). Vaccine strains exhibiting a significant increase in viable cells (p < 0.05) between Bicarbonate and Ensure treatments are marked with a double asterisk (**). Data are the combined results of three independent experiments.