Antiviral activity and expression of cytokines in PAMs treated with CP1. (A) A cell viability assay was performed with PAMs and alamarBlue®. (B, C, and D) PAMs were infected with CH-1a (MOI =0.01) in the presence of CP1 or YPD (control) for 36 h at 37°C. Viral RNA transcription (B) and protein levels (C) and the viral titers in the supernatants (D) were analyzed. (E, F, G, and H) Virus-infected or uninfected PAMs were cultured in the presence of CP1 (280 μg/ml) or YPD (control) for 18 h. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 (E), IFN-β (F), and IFN-β (G) and the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-β1 (H) was analyzed. Data are the results of three independent experiments (means ± SE). Significant differences compared with the YPD-treated control group are denoted: *P <0.05, **P <0.01, or ***P <0.001.