Influence of alcohol treatment on inflammatory parameters in the livers of germ-free mice conventionalized with intestinal contents from conventional mice. The number of neutrophils that had accumulated in the liver was measured using an MPO assay (A). Pro-inflammatory cytokine (CXCL-1/KC [B] and IL-6 [C]) levels in the liver. The cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Liver score (D). Representative pictures of the livers of the germ-free mice (GF Control), the germ-free mice that underwent alcohol treatment (GF + Ethanol), the germ-free mice colonized with intestinal contents from the conventional mice (CV → GF), and the germ-free mice colonized with intestinal contents from the conventional mice treated with alcohol (CV + Eth → GF) (E). PAS staining (200X). The data represent the mean ± SEM (n = 5-7/group). *p < 0.05; ***p < 0.001.