Influence of alcohol treatment on inflammatory parameters in the livers of germ-free and conventional mice. The number of neutrophils that had accumulated in the liver was estimated using an MPO assay (A). Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines CXCL-1/KC and IL-6 in the liver (B and C, respectively). The cytokine levels were measured by ELISA. The data represent the mean ± SEM (n = 5-7/group). #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01, 9 hours vs. 0 hours after the high dose of alcohol was administered; **p < 0.01, conventional vs. germ-free mice.