Activation of promoters by BsaN/BicA in E. coli. The ability of BsaN and BicA to directly activate the expression of promoters was examined by providing regulatory genes in trans and measuring β-galactosidase activities arising from the expression of transcriptional promoter-lacZ fusions in E. coli DH5α. Effect of BsaN/BicA on the expression of A. PbicA-lacZ fusion, B. PbopA-lacZ fusion, C. PbopE-lacZ fusion, D. PbprD-lacZ fusion and E. Ps1518-lacZ fusions; Ps1518 denotes the promoter region of BPSS1518. Effect of BsaN/BicA on the expression of F. PvirA-lacZ fusion and G. PtssM-lacZ fusion. *p < 0.05.