Mannose prevents type 1 fimbriated E. coli binding to and invasion of PTECs. (A) Binding of type 1 fimbriated E. coli (J96) to PTECs was assessed in the presence or absence of mannose. Mannose was added to the cells 30 minutes before the addition of bacteria and serum. Mannose prevents type 1 fimbriae-mediated binding in a concentration-dependent manner (> 80% inhibition in the presence of 3% mannose). P values are for comparisons between the absence and presence of mannose. * P < 0.005, **, P < 0.001. (B) Internalisation of type 1 fimbriated E. coli (J96) by PTEC was assessed in the presence of either mannose or glucose. 3% mannose or glucose was added to the cells 30 minutes before the addition of bacteria and serum. The presence of mannose significantly reduced the rate of bacterial internalisation (***, P < 0.0001 compared with Glucose). The results are representative of 3 separate experiments. Mean+/- SEM, n = 3 per experiment.