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Table 1 ExPEC/APEC genes used for virulence and phylogenetic typing

From: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coliO1:K1:H7/NM from human and avian origin: detection of clonal groups B2 ST95 and D ST59 with different host distribution

Category Gene(s) Comment Reference
  fimH D-mannose-specific adhesin, type 1 fimbriae [7]
  fimAv MT78 Fim A variant MT78 of type 1 fimbriae [7]
  pap Pilus associated with pyelonephritis (P fimbriae)  
  papC Pilus assembly; central region of pap operon [21]
papG I
papG II
papG III
Gal(α 1–4) Gal-specific pilus tip adhesin molecule
Adhesins sfa/focDE Central region of sfa (S fimbriae) and foc (F1C fimbriae) operons [21]
  sfaS Pilus tip adhesin, S fimbriae (sialic acid-specific) [7]
  focG Pilus tip molecule, F1C fimbriae (sialic acid-specific) [7]
  afa/draBC Dr antigen-specific adhesin operons (AFA, Dr, F1845) [21]
  bmaE Blood group M-specific adhesin [13]
  nfaE Nonfimbrial adhesin I assembly and transport [13]
  gafD N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-specific (G, F17c) fimbriae adhesin [13]
  cnf1 Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 [7]
  cdtB Cytolethal distending toxin [7]
Toxins sat Secreted autotransporter toxin [25]
  hlyA α- hemolysin [26]
  fyuA Yersinia siderophore receptor (ferric yersiniabactin uptake) [13]
Siderophores iutA* Ferric aerobactin receptor (iron uptake: transport) [7]
  iroN* Novel catecholate siderophore receptor [27]
  neuC K1 antigen [7]
  cvaC* ColV; on plasmids with traT, iss, and antibiotic resistance [13]
Protectin iss* Increased serum survival (outer membrane protein) [27]
  traT* Surface exclusion, serum survival (outer membrane protein) [13]
  ibeA Invasion of brain endothelium IbeA [7]
  malX (PAI) Pathogenicity-associated island marker [13]
Miscelaneous usp Uropathogenic-specific protein (bacteriocin) [28]
  fliCh7 H7 fliC flagellin [29]
  tsh* Tsh (temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin) serine protease [7]
Phylogenetic typing chuA Haem transport gene [30]
  yjaA Gene of unknown fuction from the E. coli K-12 genome [30]
  TSPE4.C2 Anonymous DNA fragment [30]
  1. *APEC plasmid-associated genes