Experimental design of the rat trials. Treatments applied to rats are indicated in italics and numbers of treated rats in brackets. For more details, see Material and Methods section. PW, peptone water. 1, Rats associated with C. butyricum DSM10702; 2, rats associated with a human faecal microbiota; 3, α-GOS-enriched soy milk (see 4 and 5) was added with a 5 % (v/v) coffee bean α-Gal solution at 1 IU/ml and was incubated for 12 h at 37°C; 4, the concentrations of raffinose and stachyose in the α-GOS-enriched soy milk administered to Cb rats were 48 and 76 mM, respectively; 5, the concentrations of raffinose and stachyose in the α-GOS-enriched soy milk administered to HMA rats were 144 and 228 mM, respectively; 6, L. fermentum cultures were at 4 × 109 CFU/ml; 7, α-GOS-enriched soy milk (see 4) was added with a 2 % (v/v) inoculum of a 4 × 109 CFU/ml L. fermentum CRL722 suspension and was allowed to ferment for 16 h at 37°C.