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Table 1 Mean reduction ± SD of the resident hand flora of 20 volunteers by reference treatment (60% propan-1-ol for 3 min) or a 1.5 min treatment with a propanol-based hand rub applied in three different modes; experiments according to EN 12791 in a Latin-square design.

From: Does a preceding hand wash and drying time after surgical hand disinfection influence the efficacy of a propanol-based hand rub?

Formulation Method Time (min) of Immediate effect Sustained effect
   washing disinfection drying RF p-value* RF p-value*
Propan-1-ol Reference disinfection 1 3 - 1.79 ± 0.98 0.026 1.42 ± 0.90 0.430
Sterillium A 1 1.5 - 1.51 ± 0.97§   1.62 ± 0.93  
Sterillium B - 1.5 - 2.29 ± 1.02   1.70 ± 1.02  
Sterillium C - 1.5 1 2.32 ± 0.93§   2.03 ± 0.91  
  1. *Comparison of all four treatments (Friedman test)
  2. §Significant pairwise difference (p < 0.05) in Wilcoxon-Wilcox test