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Table 4 Potential neutralizing agents for the microbiological application of inactivating metals cations and oxyanions*

From: High-throughput metal susceptibility testing of microbial biofilms

Metal(loid) Neutralizing agent Maximum concentration1 Reference(s)
All oxyanions2 Glutathione 10 mM [10, 18, 24]
Al3+, Mn2+ Crushed acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) ~1–2 mM3 [30, 31]
Hg2+, Cd2+ Glutathione 10 mM [10]
  L-cysteine 10 mM [16]
Cu2+, Ni2+ Diethyldithiocarbamic acid3 (DDTC) 2.5 mM (E. coli) up to 5 mM (P. aeruginosa) [27]
Sn2+ Glycine 10 mM [28]
Ag+ Sodium citrate 10 mM [10]
Zn2+, Co2+, Pb2+ Glutathione 10 mM [3]
  1. *This is the first part of a two-part strategy to reduce the in vitro toxicity of metals (see text for details)
  2. 1 The maximum concentration tested and employed in studies by our laboratories using the high-throughput metal susceptibility testing method presented in this paper.
  3. 2 Tested heavy metal and metalloid oxyanions from our laboratories include TeO32-, TeO42-, SeO32-, CrO42-, AsO43-, AsO2-, WO42- and MoO42-.
  4. 3 Application is limited by the low solubility of salicylic acid and its acetylated derivatives in water.
  5. 4 The maximum concentration listed is inhibitory to bacterial growth in broth culture. Recovery broth media must be spot plated onto agar to allow bacterial growth and determination of accurate MBC and MBEC values.