Co-infection decreases the expression ratio of pulmonary RNA cytokine transcripts relative to those of BCG-only infected BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were co-infected (black) according to the protocol illustrated in Figure 1A with BCG-only (clear) infected mice included as controls. At week 9, total RNA was extracted from the right upper lung lobe, cDNA produced and the relative gene expression ratio in co-infected mice relative to that of BCG-only infected mice, determined by real-time PCR. Following HKG normalization and delta-delta Ct analysis, the expression ratio of the genes TGF-β, IL-10, Foxp3, GATA3, T-bet, IFN-γ were calculated. Data display median ± SE, representing 8–10 animals per group. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant in comparison to BCG-only infected. (*= p < 0.05).