Parasite burdens in vaccinated mice after L. donovani challenge infection. BALB/c mice were vaccinated subcutaneously with PBS, LAg, alum, alum + LAg, saponin and saponin + LAg, or intraperitoneally with Lip and Lip + LAg. Ten days post-immunization, mice were challenged intravenously with 2.5 × 107 promastigotes of L. donovani. Liver (A) and spleen (B) parasite burden was measured 2 and 4 months after challenge, and expressed as Leishman Donovan Units. Bars represent the mean ± SE of five individual mice per group, representative of two independent experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 in comparison to PBS as well as free adjuvant immunized groups as assessed by a one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison test.