CSC promoted C. albicans biofilm formation. Yeast cells were grown with or without CSC at various concentrations for 48 and 72 h at 30°C. Panel A: Biofilms examined by SEM; photos are presented (n = 4). Panel B: C. albicans-seeded membranes stained with crystal violet. The optical density of each solution was read at 570 nm by means of a plate reader (n = 6). *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01, compared to the non-CSC-cultured C. albicans.