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Table 4 Observed combinations of β-lactamase and PMQR genes according to bacterial species

From: Multiresistant extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from humans, companion animals and horses in central Hesse, Germany

Combination of resistance genesa Outpatients Inpatients Dogs Cats Horses
  % of bacterial species (no. of isolates)
  EC KP KO EN OS b EC KP KO EN OS b EC KP KO EN OS b EC KP KO EN OS b EC KP KO EN OS b
TEM Pen /CTX-M 50 (24)      26.9 (25) 12 (3)     17.1 (6)      20 (1)      40.7 (35)     25 (1)
TEM Pen /CTX-M/PMQR   25 (1)     1.2 (1)    25 (1)   2.9 (1)      20 (1)    33.3 (1)   8.1 (7)     
TEM Pen /CTX-M/OXA Pen 2.1 (1)   33.3 (1)    2.2 (2)      14.3 (5)           12.8 (11) 10 (1)    
TEM Pen /CTX-M/OXA Pen /PMQR 4.2 (2) 25 (1)     8.6 (8) 8 (2)     8.6 (3) 18.2 (4) 100 (1) 12.5 (1)   20 (1)      1.2 (1) 40 (4)    
TEM Pen /SHV Pen /CTX-M/OXA Pen /PMQR        4 (1)      9.1 (2)           20 (2)    
TEM Pen /SHV Pen /CTX-M/OXA Pen /OXA Carba /PMQR             22.7 (5)              
TEM Pen /CTX-M/OXA Pen /OXA Carba /PMQR             27.3 (6)      50 (1)         
CTX-M/OXA Pen /PMQR 8.3 (4)      14 (13) 12 (3)     17.1 (6)      20 (1)      3.5 (3)     
TEM Pen /SHV Pen /OXA Carba /PMQR               37.5 (3)            
CTX-M/PMQR       2.2 (2)   20 (1)    5.7 (2)    12.5 (1)      33.3 (1)       
CTX-M/OXA Pen 8.3 (4)      6.5 (6) 8 (2)     2.9 (1)      20 (1)      8.1 (7)     
Other combinations 2.1 (1) 25 (1)     3.2 (3) 16 (4)      22.7 (5)   12.5 (1)    50 (1)   33.3 (1)    20 (2)    
No resistance gene detected 4.2 (2)      14 (13) 12 (3)   50 (2)   8.6 (3)    12.5 (1) 100 (1)       2.3 (2)     
Single resistance gene 20.8 (10) 25 (1) 66.7 (2)    21.5 (20) 28 (7) 80 (4) 25 (1) 100 (1) 22.9 (8)    12.5 (1)   20 (1)     1 23.3 (20) 10 (1)    75 (3)
Total no. of isolates 48 4 3 0 0 93 25 5 4 1 35 22 1 8 1 5 2 0 3 1 86 10 0 0 4
  1. EC, Escherichia coli; KP, Klebsiella pneumoniae; KO, Klebsiella oxytoca; EN, Enterobacter cloacae; OS, Other species.
  2. aTEMPen, TEM Penicillinase, OXAPen, OXA Pencillinase, OXACarba, OXA Carbapenemase, SHVPen, SHV Penicillinase.
  3. bOther species include Enterobacter intermedius (n = 2). Enterobacter gergoviae (n = 1), Citrobacter freundii (n = 1), and Proteus mirabilis (n = 1), Providencia stuartii (n = 1), Morganella morganii (n = 1).