qRT-PCR Assay to Quantitate MAP Cells from Infected BALB/c Mouse Tissues. B: MAP Concentrations in Liver Tissues. Similar to data from large intestinal tissues, liver samples from MAP infected animals at Day 90 demonstrated the least concentration of cells from animals fed viable or non-viable NP-51. Female mice infected with viable MAP and fed viable NP-51 demonstrated less cells compared to MAP infected animals at Day 90, 135,and 180- however these results were not significantly different. Day 135 Control animals were contaminated with MAP as evidenced by histopathology (granulomas identified in liver tissues) and in these data. At DAY 180- there was a significant difference ‘*’ (P ≤ 0.05) between the following: M with viable MAP compared to M infected with viable MAP and fed live NP- 51 -MAP + L-NP-51; between M and F with MAP + L-NP-51, ‘**’ ,(P ≤ 0.05); and also, between M with MAP + L-NP-51 versus MAP + K-NP-51, ‘#’ ,(P ≤ 0.05). Histopathology analysis of liver tissues from animals infected with viable or non-viable MAP demonstrated granulomas; additionally, infected animals fed viable or non-viable NP-51 demonstrated granulomas. Similar to those data described in the large intestine, we observed differences between the sexes in MAP infectivity of the liver; also similar to those previously described- further analysis must be conducted to determine the contributive significance of this difference.