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Table 2 Comparison between the morphology and morphometry of Sonderia vorax and other similar-sized species of Sonderia according to selected literature data a

From: Morphology, ultrastructure, and molecular phylogeny of the ciliate Sonderia voraxwith insights into the systematics of order Plagiopylida

Character Sonderia pharyngeaKirby, 1934 Sonderia labiataFauré-Fremiet & Tuffrau, 1955 Sonderia sinuataKahl, 1931 Sonderia sinuataBorror, 1972 Sonderia sinuataDragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis, 1986 Sonderia sinuataSola et al.,1989 Sonderia sinuataAl-Rasheid, 2001 Sonderia voraxKahl, 1928 Sonderia voraxKhal, 1931 Sonderia voraxpresent study
cell length, μm 84--110 (IV?) 160--180 (IV?) 240--250 (IV?) 145--164 180--240 (IV?) 132--176 (OF) 90--120 (IV?) 60--150 (IV) 70--180 (IV) ~ 100--150 (IV)
cell width, μm 48--65 (IV?) ~60--75c (IV?) nd 81--113 nd 78.1--105.6 (OF) 82--95 (IV?) ~ 30--75b (IV?) ~ 30--75c (IV?) ~ 50--75 (IV)
differentiation of ventral kinetom –† +† nd –† + –† +† +† +
n of ventro-frontal kineties nd nd nd nd nd ~ 30 nd nd nd 12--18
n of ventro-lateral kineties nd nd nd nd nd ~ 8† nd nd nd 8--13
n of ventral kineties (total) nd 35--40 nd nd 24 ~ 38† nd nd nd 20--31
n of dorsal kineties nd 35--40 nd nd 20--30 45 nd nd nd 25--31
composition of somatic kineties nd dk or tk nd nd dk mk; dk within the vestibular cavity nd nd nd mk
n and composition of oral kineties nd 23† prebuccal + 17† postbuccal; nd nd nd nd 30† prebuccal + 20† postbuccal; dk nd nd nd 25-30 prebuccal + 18–20 postbuccal; mk and dk
peristome size : cell size ratio > 1/2 (IV) ~ 1/2† ~ 1/2 ~ 1/2 ~ 1/2 ~ 1/2 ~ 1/2 ~ 1/2 † < 1/2† ~ 1/3
dsb size: cell size ratio nd ~ 1/2† 1 1 nd 1 nd nd nd + ~1
ma, length, μm 15--20 (IV) ~ 35† (SI?) nd nd ~ 25† (PS) 20.9--33.0 (OF) 25 ~ 20† nd 27 (average)(SI)
ma, width, μm 15--20 (IV) ~ 35† (SI?) nd nd ~ 25† (PS) 22.0--30.8 (OF) 25 ~ 20† nd 32.5 (average) (SI)
mi, number 1 nd 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
mi, diameter, μm nd nd nd nd nd nd 4--7 nd nd ~ 5.4 (average)
exI, size, μm 7--9 (IV) ~20 (SI?) nd nd 22--26 nd 6--10 nd ~ 20 ~ 20 (IV)
exI, amount and distribution few; sparse and unevenly distributed throughout the cell many, inserted in the cortex nd nd nd nd many, unevenly distributed throughout the cell† many; inserted closely to surface † many; inserted closely to surface † many; inserted in the cortex and sometimes free in the cytoplasm
swimming rotation nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd nd anticlockwise
habitat (salinity) hypersaline water (35--100 ‰) brackish water (1--6 ‰) brackish water (3--20 ‰) seawater brackish water fresh water sea water (35--38 ‰) brackish water (5--20 ‰) brackish water (5--20 ‰) brackish water (4--8 ‰)
  1. a, In Kahl [11] 7 species of Sonderia were included; in Carey [76] 8 Sonderia spp. were mentioned, but the majority of them were even more poorly described than those included in this table; b, original indication was “ratio lengh : width 2 : 1”; c, original indication was “ratio lengh : width 2½ : 1”; +, character present; –, character absent; dsb, dorso-laterally striated band; exI, longer type extrusomes; IV, in vivo; ma, macronucleus; mk, monokinetids; mi, micronucleus; n, number; nd, character not mentioned in the reference; †, character derived from pictures/drawings; OF, osmium tetroxide fixation; PS, protargol staining; SI, silver impregnation; tk, trikinetids.