Inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological inhibitors reduced the co-localization of E. coli with autophagosomes. (A) HMrSV5 cells were infected with fluorescent E. coli (green) for 1 hour. Following phagocytosis, HMrSV5 cells were exposed for 12 hours in control condition, LPS (1.0 μg/ml), 3-MA (10 mM), Wm (50 nM), LPS + 3-MA or LPS + Wm. Cells were labeled with MDC (blue) for the detection of autophagic vacuoles formation. Scale bars: 20 μm. (B) Quantitation of the co-localization of E. coli with the MDC-labeled autophagosomes in Figure 6A (mean values ± SD, n ≥ 3). ** p < 0.01 (vs. control); # p < 0.05 (vs. LPS).