Induction or inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological agents. Cells transiently transfected with the GFP-LC3 plasmid were treated with combination of drugs: control, LPS (1.0 μg/ml), LPS + 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 10 mM), LPS + wortmannin (Wm, 50 nM), or LPS + Polymyxin B (PMB, 100 μg/ml). (A) Autophagosomes were defined as GFP-LC3 puncta. DAPI was used to label nuclei (blue). Scale bars: 20 μm. Arrows indicate punctate GFP-LC3 (green). (B) Graph displays the percentage of cells with GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. **p < 0.01 (vs. control), ##p < 0.01 (vs. LPS).