Pathogenicity assays. (A) Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia leaves 4 d after inoculation. Left panel, 0.1% Tween-20 control; right panel, inoculated with A. jesenskae. (B) Cabbage leaves 4 d after inoculation. On each leaf, 0.1% Tween alone was applied to the left side of the midvein, and A. jesenskae to the right side. (C) Left panel: maize (genotype hm1/hm1) inoculated with A. jesenskae; middle panel, maize inoculated with an isolate of C. carbonum that does not produce HC-toxin; right panel, maize inoculated with an isolate of C. carbonum that produces HC-toxin. Photographs were taken 4 d after inoculation. (D) Top panels, three plants of Fumana procumbens mock-inoculated with water; bottom panels, F. procumbens inoculated with A. jesenskae. Photographs were taken 5 d after inoculation.