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Table 4 Carotenoid composition of wild-type and cyp61 X . dendrorhous mutant strain (in ppm)

From: Enhancement of carotenoid production by disrupting the C22-sterol desaturase gene (CYP61) in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

  Strains
  UCD 67-385 385-cyp61(+/−) 385-cyp61(−/−)
Cultivation time (h) 24 72 120 24 72 120 24 72 120
Astaxanthin 52.6±22.3 26.3±2.7 224.0±42.1 89.1±13.4 34.9±5.1 223.7±8.6 126.5±31.0 49.8±18.2 434.7±56.2
Phoenicoxanthin ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
Cantaxanthin ND ND 13.4±3.3 ND ND ND ND ND ND
HO-keto-γ-carotene ND 1.0±0.5 ND ND 1.9±0.3 ND ND 2.2±1.3 ND
HO-keto-torulene 2.6±1.1 1.1±0.2 30.1±6.7 ND ND 35.5±1.0 ND ND 62.1±7.3
Keto-γ-carotene 8.0±4.9 2.7±1.4 7.8±1.9 ND 1.2±0.6 9.7±1.0 ND 5.7±2.9 21.4±7.9
HO-echinenone 1.8±0.6 1.2±0.9 2.6±0.5 ND 2.6±0.5 9.2±0.4 ND 3.6±1.6 15.6±4.4
Echinenone ND ND 2.0±0.4 ND ND ND ND ND ND
Lycopene 4.0±2.0 ND ND ND 1.4±0.7 1.1±1.0 ND 4.3±1.9 ND
γ-carotene ND 0.2±0.03 2.7±0.5 ND ND ND ND 0.8±0.4 ND
β-carotene 1.1±0.5 0.8±0.3 2.7±1.1 ND 1.7±1.0 6.3±0.8 ND 4.8±3.5 15.8±9.1
Total carotenoids 70.7±26.9 36.1±8.6 290.1±53.4 89.1±13.4 47.6±7.1 293.7±9.1 126.5±31.0 78.2±26.2 555.1±75.2
  Strains    
  CBS 6938 CBS - cyp61 (−)    
Cultivation time (h) 24 72 120 24 72 120    
Astaxanthin 32.1±11.2 202.0±17.7 324.2±6.7 62.8±5.4 313.5±24.1 429.3±26.5    
Phoenicoxanthin 13.7±8.0 8.1±2.1 ND ND ND ND    
Cantaxanthin ND ND ND ND ND ND    
HO-keto-γ-carotene 2.9±1.4 9.5±0.6 ND 2.7±2.0 ND 12.2±10.5    
HO-keto-torulene ND 20.1±3.6 25.6±12.4 ND 76.4±8.3 72.8±18.0    
Keto-γ-carotene 9.8±4.6 32.8±4.6 29.8±0.45 7.1±0.8 50.2±3.5 33.0±2.97    
HO-echinenone 1.4±0.8 21.9±5.2 15.7±0.6 3.9±0.1 24.1±1.6 18.8±1.0    
Echinenone ND ND ND ND ND ND    
Lycopene 16.0±1.3 ND ND 11.9±4.9 3.2±0.5 2.9±0.1    
γ-carotene 2.4±2.0 7.3±1.6 7.6±0.5 ND 8.8±0.2 15.3±1.7    
β-carotene 0.4±0.2 33.2±6.8 20.4±0.7 1.8±1.2 41.8±4.2 31.2±1.4    
Total carotenoids 78.9±21.3 347.2±36.9 453±11.1 91.9±7.44 530.3±21.4 625.8±22.9    
  Strains    
  AVHN2 AV2 - cyp61 (−)    
Cultivation time (h) 24 72 120 24 72 120    
Astaxanthin 15.2±0.8 116.5±7.0 131.8±20.6 16.3±6.1 118.0±59.2 143.0±64.8    
Phoenicoxanthin ND ND ND ND ND ND    
Cantaxanthin ND ND ND ND ND ND    
HO-keto-γ-carotene ND 20.0±1.2 17.9±2.8 ND 25.3±7.8 36.8±16.7    
HO-keto-torulene 0.7±0.4 27.0±10.4 21.1±2.6 1.1±0.9 62.8±22.3 40.6±9.9    
Keto-γ-carotene 3.0±1.07 ND ND 1.7±0.7 13.1±9.25 ND    
HO-echinenone 2.1±0.6 10.9±5.7 9.9±0.9 ND 9.3±7.3 13.6±2.6    
Echinenone ND ND ND ND ND ND    
Lycopene 1.4±1.0 ND ND ND 4.0±2.5 ND    
γ-carotene ND 0.8±0.1 ND ND 2.2±1.7 1.1±0.9    
β-carotene 1.0±0.5 19.7±12.0 12.0±2.9 1.9±0.9 25.4±7.6 20.4±4.7    
Total carotenoids 24.9±2.8 195.3±33.7 193.4±19.0 25.0±6.9 274.6±24.1 258.6±76.7    
  1. Table shows the mean values ± standard deviations of three independent experiments.
  2. ND: Not detected.