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Table 4 Maximum median concentrations [ppb v ] with respective time of bacteria growth [h] as well as appearance in exhaled breath of healthy volunteers for selected metabolites which fulfill the criteria for biomarker of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (based on in vitro experiments)

From: Molecular analysis of volatile metabolites released specifically by staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa

Compound Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurrence [%] in healthy NON-smokers occurrence [%] in healthy smokers
max. conc. [ppbv] growth time for max. conc. growth time for 1st significant increase max. conc. [ppbv] growth time for max. conc. growth time for 1st significant increase   
2-nonanone n. s. -   22.4 28 h 1 h 30 min 0 0
1-nonene n. s. -   3.4 26 h 3 h 45 min 0 0
1-decene n. s. -   1.2 26 h 5 h 20 min 0 0
1,10-undecadiene n. s. -   6.8 24 h 4 h 30 min 0 0
1-dodecene n. s. -   9.5 24 h 6 h 0 5,6
1-undecene n. s. -   317.5 24 h 1 h 30 min 0 5,6
1-vinylaziridine n. s. -   2.8E + 07 2 h 15 min 1 h 30 min 0 0
3-methylpyrrole n. s. -   24.74 24 h 5 h 20 min 3,6 0
acetol 331.0 6 h 4 h 30 min n. s. - - 0 0
acetoin 279.3 6 h 1 h 30 min n. s. - - 3,6 0
(E)-2-butene 13.73 6 h 3 h n. s. - - 0 11,1
(Z)-2-butene 4.789 6 h 4 h 30 min n. s. - - 0 5,6
1-butanol 59.40 6 h 4 h 30 min n. s. - - 0 0
ethyl formate 3.188 6 h 6 h n. s. - - 0 0
isopentyl acetate 1.938 6 h 6 h n. s. - - 0 0
ethyl isovalerate 0.852 6 h 6 h n. s. - - 0 0
2-ethylacrolein 6.453 3 h 3 h n. s. - - 0 0
(Z)-2-methyl-2-butenal 268.5 4 h 30 min 3 h n. s. - - 0 0
isovaleric acid 97.35 6 h 4 h 30 min n. s. - - 0 5,6
  1. 1-Vinylaziridine is exclusively given as peak area due to lack of commercially available standards. Populations of healthy subjects: nsmokers = 23, nnon-smokers = 32.