The genetic organization of the S . Typhimurium fim gene cluster and a possible regulatory network. The predicted sizes of the Fim polypeptides are given in kilodaltons (kDa) with Arabic numbers. The arrows indicate the direction of transcription. The signal peptide region of each gene product is shown as a small filled box. The established or postulated functions of the genes are indicated as follows: fimA, major fimbrial subunit; fimI, minor fimbrial subunit; fimC, chaperone protein; fimD, molecular usher; fimH, adhesion protein; fimF, minor fimbrial subunit; fimZ, regulatory protein; fimY, regulatory protein; stm0551, phosphodiesterase; fimW, regulatory protein; fimU, arginine tRNA. FimZ and FimY are both required to activate fimA. FimW represses fimA expression and FimW interacts with FimZ physically to consume FimZ, diminishing available FimZ to activate fimA. Leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) activates fimZ. fimU activate FimY translation. The function of stm0551 within the fim regulatory circuit needs further characterization.