Prevention of membrane damage caused due to A. veronii by pre-incubated with CFS of VR1. Epithelial damage observed by immunofluorescence of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and F-actin in MDCK cell line. a) ZO-1 b) Actin c) DAPI d) Merged images for different treatment groups: 1) control, 2) A. veronii 3) VR1 4) co-incubation of VR1 with A. veronii 5) pre-incubation of VR1 with A. veronii. Pre-incubation of VR1 prevents epithelial damage due to A. veronii as observed in the merged image. Scale denotes 20 μm in all images.