pH-dependent proteolytic enzyme activity profiles mapped on the fungal symbiont phylogeny. The pH optima curves concern total proteinase activity (solid lines) and metallo- and serine proteinase activity separately (dashed and dotted lines, respectively). Vertical lines on the graphs represent the respective pH conditions of fungus gardens (5.2) and the typical pH optimum for alkaline proteinases (7.0). The profiles of lower attines plus higher attines with mainly serine proteinase activity and higher attine and leaf-cutting ants with mainly metalloproteinase activity are outlined with blue, green and red backgrounds, respectively, to match color-coding in Figure 1. The single Trachymyrmex cornetzi garden with an intermediate proteinase profile is plotted against a brown background and the single Apterostigma collare colony rearing a pterulaceous fungal symbiont against a grey background. The numbering of fungus gardens corresponds to the numbers used in the Table 1. The Myrmicocrypta ednaella (Myred1) profile is representative for all lower attine gardens. The Sericomyrmex amabilis (Serama1) garden was chosen as illustrative example because it showed a relatively high metalloproteinase activity, so that a clearer pH profile could be obtained. For Trachymyrmex species with predominantly serine proteinase activity we plotted the average profile for Trachymyrmex sp3 (Trsp3-3) and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki (Trzet3), which were very similar. As representatives of the basal higher attine and leaf-cutting ant symbionts with predominantly metalloproteinase activity we plotted gardens of colonies Trcor10 and Acech322 as gardens of other colonies with this symbiont displayed very similar profiles. The phylogenetic tree is based on the LSU rRNA and Elongation Factor 1-alpha genes, except for samples 20 and 23 for which only the LSU gene could be sequenced. Only aLRT (approximate likelihood ratio test) support values > 0.5 are given.