Growth and pigment production in X. dendrorhous. Growth was measured by the absorbance at 560 nm (shown on a log scale), which is represented by the squares and solid line. The means ± SD of the values obtained from four independent cultures are shown. The vertical arrows indicate the harvest times for the assays (24, 70 and 96 h, which corresponded to lag, late exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively). The solid line represents the total carotenoids. The asterisk indicates the induction of carotenoid biosynthesis.