Surface localization of LigA and LigB. Surface immunofluorescence assay was performed with L. biflexa wild-type strain (Patoc wt), and ligA- (Patoc ligA), and ligB- (Patoc ligB) L. biflexa transformants. Strains were labeled with normal rabbit serum (control) and antibodies against LigA (LigANI), LigB (LigBNI), whole leptospires, and GroEL. A DAPI counterstain was used to document the presence of leptospires. A photomicrograph is shown from one of three representative experiments.