In situ inhibition of Listeria on cheese surface by complex consortia. Cheese surfaces were treated with smear brines (3.3% (w/v) NaCl), inoculated with either consortium F, consortium M or the defined commercial culture OMK 704 (control cheese). Two independent experiments were carried out for each treatment. Different symbols indicate different commercial cheese production. Smear brines were inoculated with Listeria innocua on day 7 and 8, at 5 × 103 CFU ml-1. Stars indicate times where Listeria counts were below the detection limit of the enumeration method (< 3 CFU cm-2; dashed line).