Neutrophil- and Complement- Mediated Competition. Three-day-old neonatal rats were treated with either anti-neutrophil serum (-neutrophil) or cobra venom factor (-complement) or PBS and inoculated with either 106cfu of H. influenzae or PBS (alone). Forty-eight hours later, 104 cfu of Poland(6b)-20 S. pneumoniae was inoculated. The 25th to 75th percentiles of nasal wash samples taken 48 hours after S. pneumoniae inoculation are represented by the box plots, with the horizontal bar indicating the median value and circles outlying values. P-value from Mann Whitney U test comparing the bacterial density of previously uninfected rats and those with established populations of H. influenzae. Dashed line represents limit of detection.