V. parahaemolyticus induces JNK, p38 and ERK phosphorylation in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were co-incubated with viable V. parahaemolyticus WT RIMD2210633 for 15, 60 or 120 min, with 50 μg/ml anisomycin for 30 min or with heat-killed WT V. parahaemolyticus for 2 h. Cell lysates were prepared and proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. Following transfer of proteins to nitrocellulose membranes, the membranes were probed with anti-phospho-JNK, -phospho-p38 and -phospho-ERK1/2 antibodies. The stripped membranes were re-probed with the corresponding anti-total-MAPK antibodies to control for equivalent protein loading. A. Representative image of MAPK immunoblot. Results are representative of at least three independent experiments. B. Quantification of MAPK activation. Results are expressed as the ratio of phospho-MAPK to total MAPK and as relative to levels in Caco-2 cells alone. Results indicate mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM) of three independent experiments. **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 vs medium.