Sensitivities of E. ruminantium LAMP assays. The assays were performed with serial dilutions of plasmid DNA (104, 103, 102, 10, 5, and 1 copies per reaction) containing the pCS20 or sodB genes. (A and B) Real-time monitoring of pCS20 (A) and sodB (B) LAMP assays using the Loopamp real-time turbidimeter. Plots represent the mean threshold time (Turbidity of 0.1). The error bars represent the standard errors of the mean from three replicates. The plot of the mean threshold time versus the log of the input DNA fit a linear function (R2 = 0.9725 for pCS20 LAMP and 0.9437 for sodB LAMP). (C and D) Visual detection of pCS20 (C) and sodB (D) LAMP products. LAMP products were visualized with Gel-Red TM under UV (lower panel) or electrophoresed in a 2.0% agarose gel stained with Gel-Red TM (upper panel). Lanes: M, 100-bp molecular weight marker; 1 to 6, from left to right, 104 to 1 gene copy per reaction, as above; N, negative control.