Pellicle formation of S. oneidensis in LB under aerobic conditions. (A) Growth of S. oneidensis in static liquid LB under aerobic conditions. Cell density of all cells (planktonic and pellicle cells combined) (brown square), pellicle cells (yellow triangle), planktonic cells (blue circle), and the ΔflgA mutant (green cross) was shown. Growth of agitated cultures (black diamond) is included for comparison. Presented are averages of four replicates with the standard deviation indicated by error bars. (B) Pellicle formation of MR-1 in static liquid LB under aerobic conditions. The pellicles started to form about 12 h after inoculation based on the altered growth rate of planktonic cells at the room temperature. (C) Dissolved oxygen concentrations at 1 cm below the surface in the static MR-1 cultures.