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Table 3 Effect of immune inhibitors on susceptibility of third-instar gypsy moth larvae reared without antibiotics to B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII; 20 μg).

From: Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

     Total Mortality (mean proportion ± SE)  
Compound added to
B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII)
Compound activity Compound concentration N without
B. thuringiensis
with
B. thuringiensis
Significance
(p-value) of
rank analysis
B. thuringiensis toxin control    48 0.06 ± 0.02 0.92 ± 0.15 a  
Acetylsalicylic acid Eicosanoid inhibitor (COX) 100 μg 36 0.00 ± 0.00 0.81 ± 0.16 ab 0.0396
Dexamethasone Eicosanoid inhibitor (PLA2) 100 μg 24 0.00 ± 0.00 0.79 ± 0.19 ab 0.4519
Indomethacin Eicosanoid inhibitor (COX) 10 μg 48 0.04 ± 0.04 0.83 ± 0.14 ab 0.0056
Esculetin Eicosanoid inhibitor (LOX) 100 μg 24 0.00 ± 0.00 0.83 ± 0.18 ab 0.9757
Piroxicam Eicosanoid inhibitor (COX) 100 μg 36 0.04 ± 0.02 0.94 ± 0.18 a 0.2417
Glutathione Nitric oxide scavenger, phenoloxidase inhibitor 1.2 μg 36 0.02 ± 0.02 0.72 ± 0.14 ab 0.0154
N-acetyl cysteine Reactive oxygen scavenger 100 mM 36 0.03 ± 0.01 0.86 ± 0.15 a 0.0286
Phenylthiourea Nitric oxide scavenger, phenoloxidase inhibitor 75 mM 36 0.03 ± 0.03 0.81 ± 0.15 ab 0.3382
S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline Nitric oxide scavenger 100 mM 36 0.03 ± 0.02 0.83 ± 0.15 ab 0.0245
Tannic acid Phenoloxidase inhibitor 100 μg 24 0.00 ± 0.00 0.79 ± 0.19 ab 0.2740
S-nitroso-N-acetyl-l, l-penicillamine Nitric oxide donor 100 mM 36 0.00 ± 0.00 0.94 ± 0.18 a 0.4409
  1. The value N refers to the total number of larvae tested per treatment. There were no effects by these compounds without B. thuringiensis. Log-rank analysis was used to compare larval survival for each concentration of inhibitor, treatments with a p-value < 0.05 were considered significantly different from Bt toxin alone. Mean mortality values followed by the same letter do not differ significantly from each other.