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Table 1 Temporal sequence of effects of ingestion of a low dose of live cell formulation of B. thuringiensis (DiPel 10 IU) on condition of hemocytes and larval mortality in third-instar gypsy moth.

From: Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

Time (h) Larvae with hemocyte abnormalitiesa (proportion) Hemocyte ratingb Larval mortality (proportion)
  No treatment Bt No treatment Bt No treatment Bt
0 0.00 0.00 +++ +++ 0.00 0.00
14 0.00 0.40 +++ ++ 0.00 0.02
24 0.00 0.75 +++ + 0.00 0.07
32 0.00 0.87 +++ +/- 0.00 0.15
  1. a n = 5 for each treatment.
  2. b Rating scale:
  3. +++: hemocytes entire, adhesive properties
  4. ++: some hemocytes, inclusions present
  5. +: very few hemocytes, ruptured cells
  6. -: no hemocytes