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Table 1 Effect of a tenfold dilution series of prothioconazole, prothioconazole + fluoxastrobin and azoxystrobin on fungal biomass measured by Q-PCR analysis.

From: Hydrogen peroxide induced by the fungicide prothioconazole triggers deoxynivalenol (DON) production by Fusarium graminearum

  prothio prothio+catalase* prothio+fluoxa prothio+fluoxa+catalase* azoxy azoxy+catalase*
control 235.68a 194.60a 255.68a 245.89a 251.57a 232.45a
1/1000 9.42b 63.03b 76.23b 48.17b 267.16a 230.12a
1/100 2.35c 31.13c 16.58c 44.90b 250.01a 234.93a
1/10 2.51c 50.02bc LD LD 254.22a 216.00a
field LD 33.47c LD LD 236.54a 170.72a
  1. F. graminearum biomass expressed as ng/μl. In each run, a no-template control was included. The amount of fungal material was measured based on a standard series of F. graminearum DNA ranging from 100 ng/μl down to 3.125 ng/μl which was carried out in triplicate.
  2. Different letters indicate significant differences after analysis with a Kruskall-Wallis Mann-Whitney analysis with P = 0.05
  3. Prothio: prothioconazole; azoxy: azoxystrobin; fluoxa:fluoxastrobin
  4. *: Effect of catalase (1000 U/ml) added at the start of the experiment on the F. graminearum biomass.
  5. LD: Lower than detection limit.